a city and port in Central Dalmatia, situated on a peninsula between the eastern part of the Gulf of Kaštela and the Split Channel. A hill Marjan rises in the western part of the peninsula and the ridges Kozjak and Mosor protect the city from the east and the nord-east.
Split has the Mediterranean climate: hot dry summers and mild, humid winters. It is one of the sunniest places in Europe, vegetation is of the evergreen Mediterranean type, and subtropical flora grows in the city and its surroundings. Marjan is covered with a cultivated forest. Split is a bussiness, administrative and cultural centre of Dalmatia. Split is an important Croatian port in terms of passenger and goods traffic. It is the centre of the maritime connections with the ports on the coast and the islands and terminal railway station of the rail connections with the hinterland. Ferries operate regularly between Split and the central Dalmatian islands, as well as to Ancona in Italy. Except with the islands ship connections are established with Pula, Venice, Dubrovnik and Greece. The airport of Split is situated in Resnik (Kaštela). Apart from shipbuilding industry other manufacturers include processing of plastic masses, cement industry, food and other products. Split has many cultural and educational institutions and recently a specialized UN institution for protection of environment in the Mediterranean. Split disposes of a variety of sports facilities, swimming pools and piers for sport boats and similar. Split has four marinas.
Split developed probably from an ancient Greek settlement called Aspalathos. Around AD 300 Emperor Diocletian constructed here a luxurious palace in which he resided and where he was buried. Since then the palace was used as a residence for expelled Roman emperors and their families. After the fall of Salona its citizens found shelter within the walls of Diocletians palace. A new settlement soon developed. In 1069 Split was annexed to Croatia by King Petar Krešimir IV. In 1420 Split acknowledged the protectorate of Venice. On the fall of Venice in 1797 it fell together with the remaining Dalmatia under the power of Austria which ceded it to France in 1805. The 1882 selections in Split introduced Croatian administration. At the beginning of the 20th century Split was the most important port on this coast of Adriatic.
the Old Town, the oldest nucleus of Split is located within the walls of Diocletians Palace, it is the most valuable example of Roman architecture on the eastern coast of Adriatic. The mausoleum of Diocletian, today's cathedral of St. Doimus. The Papalić Palace (15th c.), the most important example of Gothic architecture in Split, it houses the Museum of the City of Split. Its architectonic details bear distinctive marks of Juraj Dalmatinac's workshop. The Agubio Palace (Gothic portal), the statue of Grgur Ninski (a work by Ivan Meštrović). The Cindro Palace, the most beautiful Baroque palace in Split. Museum of Croatian Archaeological Monuments – the major institution of Croatian culture. The Institute of Oceanography and Fishery and its aquarium. The pre-Romanesque church of Holy Trinity, the Renaissance cloister accomodates tombstones of Split patrician families. The Bishop's Palace built in neo-Renaissance style, the chapel of St. Arnir, 1445 by Juraj Dalmatinac, the church of Our lady of the Belfry (Baroque altar, Byzantine Icon from 11th c., wall paintings by Meneghello from 1412), the monastery and the church of St. Francis (13th c.), the Meštrović Citadel, the Gripe forttress (17th c.).